Institute of Archaeology Institute of Archaeology
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
About the Institute Academic Programs Departments & Units People Excavations Events & Seminars Exhibits Publications Library
Academic Staff
Graduate Students
Visiting Scholars
Administrative Staff

Naama Yahalom-Mack


Ph.D. dissertation topic: Bronze in the Beginning of the Iron Age in the Land of Israel: Production and Utilization in a Diverse Ethno-Political Setting

Advisors:  Prof. Ami Mazar (Hebrew University), Dr. Sariel Shalev (Haifa University and Weizmann Institute for Science


This study deals with different aspects of bronze production and utilization in the Iron Age I (ca. 1200-1000 BCE). Though this period was named after the appearance of the first iron implements, iron remains were rare at this time, while remains of dozens of copper-based industries, including crucibles, tuyères and slag and hundreds of bronze objects, have been found in settlements dated to the period. The aim of the work is to characterize these industries metallurgically and to attempt to understand their role in the Early Iron Age, when a variety of ethno-political groups settled the country. A typological analysis of refractories and copper-based objects will be followed by a study of the distribution of the industries and the different types of objects. Relevant issues such as the type of metallurgical activities carried out in the industries (smelting, [re-]melting or refining) and the type of the raw materials used will be dealt with, using various analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and inductively-coupled plasma. An attempt will be made to determine the provenience of the raw material using lead isotope analysis, in cooperation with Dr. Irena Segal of the Geological Survey of Israel and with the help of Dr. Yigal Erel of the Institute of Earth Sciences of the Hebrew University. The metallurgical research will be conducted mainly in the archaeo-metallurgical lab in the Kimmel Center for Archeological Sciences in the Weizmann Institute of Science. The importance of the study lies in the combining of different research methods to understand one of the more complex periods in the history of the country, focusing on a technological change that played a major role in the social, political and economic processes of the period.


  • 2002–present. Guest student of the Kimmel Center for Archaeological Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot.
  • 1998–present. Member of the Beth Shean Valley Archaeological Project, including excavations at Tel Rehov (directed by Prof. A. Mazar).
  • 2001–present. Preparation and publication of small finds from Tel Batash, Tel Beth Shean and Tel Rehov excavations.

List of Publications