The Yarmukian Culture in Israel


X. Long Distance Trade

The common items found in Neolithic sites in Israel that reflect long distance trade are obsidian, greenstones and seashells. In the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period such items are usually found in small quantaties in almost evey site. In Pottery Neolithic sites such items are very rare. Stekelis, from his excavations at Sha`ar Hagolan, did not mentioned any exotic raw materials. In the publication of the Munhata obsidian, no item was related to Layer 2b, but either to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers or Layer 2a of the Wadi Rabah Culture(113).

In the new ecxavations at Sha`ar Hagolan one obsidian item was unearthed, and the ratio of flint to obsidian is 1:16071. In Munhata as well one obsidian item (bucket number 2687) which was related to Pre-Pottery Neolithic B layers(114) was unearthed in Pit 796 which contained classical Yarmukian pottery(115) and it is therefore a Yarmukian item.

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113) Wright and Gordus, 1969.

114) Wright and Gordus, 1969.

115) Garfinkel, 1992b: 310, Table 4.