Institute of Archaeology Institute of Archaeology
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
About the Institute Academic Programs Departments & Units People Excavations Events & Seminars Exhibits Publications Library
Prehistoric Archaeology
  Staff & Students
Archaeology of the Biblical Period
Classical Archaeology
Civilizations of the Ancient Near East

Computerized Archaeology
Restoration & Conservation
Graphic Documentation
Masha Krakovsky

Masha Krakovsky


M.A. topic: Technological traditions at the end of Middle Palaeolithic in the Southern Levant? Point reduction sequences from Amud and Kebara caves as a case study.

Advisors: Prof. Erella Hovers


The causes of the variability observed in lithic assemblages are of major interest to archaeologists that explain them in various ways. In this study technology and production processes are conceived as the main factors that account for the variability in lithic assemblages. While lithic production is related to functional needs and responds to external ecological factors such as raw material constraints and mobility patterns, variability in people’s technological choice may be linked with culturally-bound decision-making processes. These processes can be studied through the chaîne opératoire approach. Embedded in this approach is the assumption that during each stage of lithic production (of chaîne opératoire) a knapper chooses from various operational alternatives. If similar choices are made at the same points of the production process and they occur repeatedly in all the horizons of a stratified site, this might suggest a "traditional" way of carrying out lithic reduction sequences. This analysis is carried out with the aid of 3-D scanning technology. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of the attributes determining the shapes of triangular Levallois flakes and points address the degree of variability of this relatively standardized pre-determined flake morphology. These comparisons contribute to the ability to differentiate equifinality from a repeated, standardized technological know-how that may represent technological choices within a social context.


  • Amud Cave - Middle Paleolithic site

Research interests:

  • Lithic technology
  • Middle Palaeolithic of the Levant