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The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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Prof. Leore Grosman

Photographs and Figures:




Nahal Ein Gev II - located in Wadi Ein Gev, at the middle of a perennial stream that flows west to the Sea of Galilee. The site is situated on a flat alluvial terrace on the right bank of a prominent meander in the streambed about 2 km east of the Sea of Galilee at the Natufian times.
Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic and its geographic setting, the site reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community in the Mediterranean zone ca. 12,000 years ago.

Nahal Ein Gev II


Computer simulation of the emergence of agriculture
Computer simulation of the emergence of agriculture

General view of Hilazon Cave
General view of Hilazon Cave

Hilazon Cave – external view
Hilazon Cave – external view

General Plan
General Plan

Primary burial in structure B
Primary burial in structure B

Pendant
Pendant

Plan and features of Hilazon Tachtit Cave
Plan and features of Hilazon Tachtit Cave.
(A) Plan of the cave indicating the excavation area.
(B) The Natufian features at Hilazon Tachtit Cave including the burial pits (pit I, II, and III), Structure A, and Structure B.
The burial was located in structure A (Photograph by N. Hilger, Tel Aviv, Israel).

An artistic reconstruction of the Shaman grave
An artistic reconstruction of the Shaman grave, Hilazon Tachtit Cave. (Illustration by P. Groszman, Jerusalem, Israel, drawn to scale.)

The animal body-parts present in the Shaman grave
The animal body-parts present in the Shaman grave. The location of the body-part represented is indicated on the animal illustration with a red dot.
(A) Caudal vertebrae from an auroch’s tail (Bos primigenius);
(B) complete marten (Martes foina) skull; (C) carapace of a spur-thighed Mediterranean tortoise (Testudo graeca) and examples of the anterior plastron which was repeatedly broken in the same location;
(D) carpometacarpus and first phalanx of digit II from the wing tip of a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos); and
(E) articulated forearm (radius and ulna) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa). (Photographs by G. Hartman, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Illustrations by P. Groszman.)

Giant block with cup marks
Giant block with cup marks

Two 3D images of a scanned handaxe
Two 3D images of a scanned handaxe. Shaded display (left) and point-cloud display (right).

Positioning of a handaxe according to the inertia tensor
Positioning of a handaxe according to the inertia tensor (including a midsection) based on the 3D images.