Institute of Archaeology Institute of Archaeology
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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Departments
Prehistoric Archaeology
Archaeology of the Biblical Period
Classical Archaeology
  Islamic Archaeology
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Civilizations of the Ancient Near East

Units
Computerized Archaeology
Restoration & Conservation
Graphic Documentation
Collections

Prof. Lee Israel Levine

Publications:


I.     Books

1.     Caesarea under Roman Rule (Leiden: Brill, 1975), 297pp.

2.     Roman Caesarea: An Archeological-Topographical Study, Qedem 2 (Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1975), 56pp., 8 pl.

3.     The Rabbinic Class in Palestine in the Talmudic Period (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), 154pp. Hebrew.

4.   Excavations at Caesarea – 1975, 1976, 1979: Final Report, Qedem 21, co-authored with Ehud Netzer (Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University, 1986), 206pp.

5.     The Rabbinic Class of Roman Palestine in Late Antiquity, revised and expanded from Hebrew (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi and Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1989), 223pp.

6.     Jerusalem in Its Splendor: A History of the City in the Second Temple Period, Ariel 114–115 (Jerusalem: Ariel Publishing, 1996), 206pp. Hebrew.

7.     Jerusalem in Its Splendor: A History of the City in the Second Temple Period, revised and expanded edition (Tel-Aviv: Modan Publishing, 1997), 240pp. Hebrew.

8 a.   Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998), 212pp.

   b.   Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1999), 200pp. Hebrew.

9.      The Ancient Synagogue (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 748pp.

10a.     The Ancient Synagogue, revised and expanded paperback edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, in preparation).

       b.     The Ancient Synagogue, Hebrew translation of the revised and expanded edition (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, in preparation).

11.   Jerusalem: A Portrait of the City in the Second Temple Period (538 b.c.e.–70 c.e.) (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2002), 486pp.

12.   Geographical Place-Names in Eretz-Israel during the Second Temple – Talmudic Periods According to Hebrew and Aramaic Sources, I (Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences, in press), 600pp. Hebrew.

13.    Visual Judaism: History, Art, and Identity in Late Antiquity (in preparation)

II.    Edited Books

14.    Ancient Synagogues Revealed (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), 199pp.

15.    The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel, I (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1981), 368pp.

16.    The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel, II (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1982), 348pp.

17.    The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel, III (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1983), 361pp.

18.    The Synagogue in Late Antiquity (Philadelphia: American Schools of Oriental Research and Jewish Theological Seminary, 1987), 222pp.

19.    The Galilee in Late Antiquity (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1992), 410pp.

20.   Jerusalem: Its Sanctity and Centrality to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (New York: Continuum Publishing, 1998), 493pp.

21.    From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity, co-edited with Z. Weiss (Ann Arbor: JRA Supplementary Series, 2000), 238pp.

22.    The Controversy over the Historicity of the Bible, co-edited with A. Mazar (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi and Dinur Center, Hebrew University, 2001), 162pp. Hebrew.

23.    One Thousand Years of Jewish History (1000–2000 C.E.): Change and Upheaval (Jerusalem: Dinur Center, Hebrew University, 2002). 54pp. Hebrew.

24.   Continuity and Renewal: Jews and Judaism in Byzantine-Christian Palestine (Jerusalem: Dinur Center [Hebrew University], Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, and Jewish Theological Seminary, Jerusalem, 2004). Hebrew and English, 588pp.

III.    Internet Course

25.   Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period, Jewish Theological Seminary, Fall 2001–2005 (http://www.courses.jtsa.edu/hist/sectemp)

IV. Articles

26.   “Philo and the Allegorical Method,” Yavne Review (1961), 17–28.

27.   “Some Observations of the Coins of Caesarea Maritima,” Israel Exploration Journal 22 (1972), 131–140.

28.   “A propos de la fondation de la Tour de Straton,” Revue Biblique 80 (1973), 75–81.

29.   “The Hasmonean Conquest of Strato’s Tower,” Israel Exploration Journal 24 (1974), 62–69.

30a.  “The Jewish-Greek Conflict in First Century Caesarea,” Journal of Jewish Studies 25 (1974), 381–397.

     b. “The Jewish-Greek Conflict in First Century Caesarea,” in: The Great Jewish Revolt, ed. A. Kasher (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1983), 173–194. Hebrew.

31.   “Rabbi Abbahu of Caesarea,” in: Christianity, Judaism and Other Greco-Roman Cults: Studies for Morton Smith at Sixty, IV, ed. J. Neusner, (Leiden: Brill, 1975), 56–76.

32.   “La Palestine sous la loi romaine,” Les dossiers de l’archéologie 10 (May–June, 1975), 17–22.

33.   “Rabbi Abbahu of Caesarea,” Papers of the Sixth World Congress for Jewish Studies, II (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1976), 47–50. Hebrew.

34a.  “The Zealots of the Late Second Temple Period in Modern Historiography,” Cathedra 1 (1976), 39–48, 59–60. Hebrew.

    b. “The Zealots of the Late Second Temple Period in Modern Historiography,” in: The Great Jewish Revolt, ed. A. Kasher (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1983), 365–388. Hebrew.

35.   “New Light on Caesarea,” Qadmoniot 11 (1978), 70–75. Hebrew.

36.   “Pella,” in: Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, III, ed. M. Avi-Yonah and E. Stern (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1978), 939–943.

37.    “Caesarea,” in: Encyclopedia Hebraica, XXIX (Jerusalem, 1978), 658–661. Hebrew.

38.   “On the Political Involvement of the Pharisees under Herod and the Procurators,” Cathedra 8 (1978), 12–28. Hebrew.

39a.  “R. Simeon bar Yohai and the Purification of Tiberias,” Hebrew Union College Annual 49 (1978), 143–185.

    b.  “R. Simeon bar Yohai and the Purification of Tiberias,” Cathedra 22 (1982), 9–42. Hebrew.

40.   “The Jewish Patriarch (Nasi) in Third Century Palestine,” in: Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, II, 19.2, ed. H. Temporini and W. Haase (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1979), 649–688.

41a.  “Toward an Appraisal of Herod as a Builder,” Cathedra 15 (1980), 52–55. Hebrew.

    b. “Toward an Appraisal of Herod as a Builder,”in: The Jerusalem Cathedra, I, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1981), 1–10.

42.   “Ancient Synagogues – A Historical Introduction,” in: Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), 1–10.

43.   “The Inscription in the ‘En Gedi Synagogue,” in: Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), 140–145.

44.   “The Synagogue at Dura Europos,” in: Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), 172–177.

45.   “The Synagogue at Horvat ‘Ammudim,” in: Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1981), 78–81.

46.   “The Political Struggle between Pharisees and Sadducees in the Hasmonean Period,” in: Studies in the History of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period:  Schalit Memorial Volume, ed. A. Oppenheimer, U. Rappaport, and M. Stern (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1981), 61–83. Hebrew.

47.   “Horvat ‘Ammudim Excavations,” Qadmoniot 51–52 (1981), 107–111. Hebrew.

48.   “The History of Caesarea in the Roman and Byzantine Periods,” Qardom 18 (1981), 7–30. Hebrew.

49.   “On the History of the Study of Caesarea,” Qardom 18 (1981), 64–68. Hebrew.

50.    “Excavations at the Synagogue of Horvat ‘Ammudim,” Israel Exploration Journal 32 (1982), 1–12.

51.   “The Age of R. Judah the Prince,” in: Eretz-Israel from the Destruction of the Second Temple to the Muslim Conquest, I, ed. Z. Baras, S. Safrai, Y. Tsafrir, and M. Stern (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1982), 94–118. Hebrew.

52.    “Palestine in the Third Century C.E.,” in: Eretz-Israel from the Destruction of the Second Temple to the Muslim Conquest, I, ed. Z. Baras, S. Safrai, Y. Tsafrir, and M. Stern (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1982), 119–143. Hebrew.

53.   “The Rabbinic Class of Third Century Palestine,” Proceedings of the Eighth World Congress of Jewish Studies, Division B (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1982), 5–8. Hebrew.

54.    “Messianic Tendencies at the End of the Second Temple Period,” in: Messianism and Eschatology, ed. Z. Baras (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1983), 135–152. Hebrew.

55.    “Archaeological Discoveries from the Greco-Roman Era,” in: Recent Archaeology in the Land of Israel, ed. H. Shanks (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1983), 75–87.

56.   “The Archaeological Finds from Beth-Shearim and Their Importance for the Study of the Talmudic Period,” in: Eretz-Israel, XVIII (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985), 277–281. Hebrew.

57.   “Césarée et la synagogue de Horvat Ha-‘Ammudim,” in: Recherches Archéologiques en Israel, ed. E. Lipinski (Leuven: Peeters, 1984), 227–231.

58.   “Roman Rule in Palestine at the End of the Second Temple Period (63 B.C.E.–74 C.E.), in: The History of Eretz-Israel, IV, ed. M. Stern (Jerusalem: Keter, 1984), 11–280. Hebrew.

59.   “Herod: The Man and His Times,” in: King Herod and His Times, Idan 5 (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), 2–10. Hebrew.

60. “An Onomasticon of Ancient Palestine in the Second Temple – Talmudic Periods according to Hebrew and Aramaic Sources: A Preliminary Report,” World Union of Jewish Studies Newsletter 25 (1985), 39–46. Hebrew.

61a.  “The Second Temple Synagogue: The Formative Years,” in: The Synagogue in Late Antiquity, ed. L. I. Levine (Philadelphia: American Schools of Oriental Research and Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1987), 7–31.

    b. “The Second Temple Synagogue: Its Character and Development,” in: The Synagogue in Israel and the Diaspora in Antiquity, ed. A. Oppenheimer, A. Kasher, and U. Rappaport (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1987), 11–29. Hebrew.

62a.  “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom,” in: Ancient Israel: A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, ed. H. Shanks (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1988), 177–204, 254–257.

    b. “Okres hellenistyczny,” in: Starozytny Izrael – Od czasow Abrahama do zburzenia Jerozolimy przez Rzymian (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1994), 247–284.

63.   “La synagogue de Doura Europos,” Le Monde de la Bible 57 (1989), 20–27.

64.   “Les fonctions de la synagogue ancienne,” Le Monde de la Bible 57 (1989), 28–31.

65.   The Interior of the Ancient Synagogue and Its Furnishings: From Communal Center to ‘Lesser Sanctuary’,” Cathedra 60 (1990), 36–84. Hebrew.

66.   “The Jewish Community at Caesarea in Late Antiquity,” in: Caesarea Papers: Straton’s Tower, Herod’s Harbour, and Roman and Byzantine Caesarea, ed. R. L. Vann (Ann Arbor: JRA Supplementary Series, 1992), 268–273.

67.   “Judaism from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the End of the Second Jewish Revolt: 70–135 C.E.,” in: Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: Parallel History of Their Origins and Early Development, ed. H. Shanks (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1992), 125–149.

68.     “The Sages and the Synagogue in Late Antiquity: The Evidence of the Galilee,” in: The Galilee in Late Antiquity, ed. L. I. Levine, (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1992), 201–222.

69.   “Herod the Great,” in: The Anchor Bible Dictionary, III, ed. D. N. Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 161–169.

70.   “Jewish War (66–74 C.E.),” in: The Anchor Bible Dictionary, III, ed. D. N. Freedman (New York: Doubleday, 1992), 839–845.

71.    “Synagogues,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, IV, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 1421–1424.

72.    “Synagogue Research Since the 1970s,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, I, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 258–261. Hebrew.

73a.  “The Synagogue of Horvat ‘Ammudim,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, IV, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 1242–1244.

    b.  “The Synagogue of Horvat ‘Ammudim,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, I, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 55–56. Hebrew.

74a.   “Excavations at Caesarea,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, I, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 280–282.

    b.   “Excavations at Caesarea,” in: The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, IV, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: Carta, 1993), 1379–1382. Hebrew.

75.    “Caesarea’s Synagogues and Some Historical Implications,” in: Biblical Archaeology Today 1990 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), 666–678.

76.    “Introduction,” in: Synagogues in Eretz Israel: From Antiquity to the Present, ed. H. Klil-Hahoresh (Tel-Aviv: Israel Defense Forces Educational Division, 1993), 13–32. Hebrew.

77.   “The Relationship between Rabbinic Literature and Archeological Finds: Remarks in Response to D. Amit,” Cathedra 68 (1993), 36–40. Hebrew.

78.    “Synagogue,” in: The Oxford Companion to the Bible, ed. B. M. Metzger and M. D. Cougan (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 721–724.

79.   “The Synagogue as a Communal Institution: Who Determined its Policy?” Proceedings of the Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies, B/1 (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1994), 1–8. Hebrew.

80a. “Josephus’ Description of the Jerusalem Temple: War, Antiquities, and Other Sources,” in: Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period, ed. F. Parente and J. Sievers (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 233–246.

    b.  “The Temple of Jerusalem: Josephus’ Description and Other Sources,” Cathedra 77 (1995), 3–16. Hebrew.

81.   “The Background of the Antiochan Persecutions and the Hasmonean Revolt,” in: In the Days of the Hasmonean Dynasty, ed. D. Amit and H. Eshel (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1995), 9–20. Hebrew.

82a.   “Diaspora Judaism of Late Antiquity and Its Relationship to Palestine: Evidence from the Ancient Synagogue,” in: Studies on the Jewish Diaspora in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, Te‘uda 12, ed. B. Isaac and A. Oppenheimer (Tel-Aviv: Ramot, 1996), 139–158.

    b.   “Uniformity and Diversity in Judaism of Late Antiquity: Evidence from the Diaspora Synagogues,” in: The Jews in the Hellenistic-Roman World: Studies in Memory of Menahem Stern, ed. I. Gafni, A. Oppenheimer and D. Schwartz (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 1996), 379–92. Hebrew.

83.   “Synagogue Officials: The Evidence from Caesarea and Its Implications for Palestine and the Diaspora,” in: Caesarea Maritima: A Retrospective after Two Millennia, ed. A. Raban and K. Holum (Leiden: Brill, 1996), 392–400.

84a.  “The Status of the Patriarchate in the Third and Fourth Centuries: Sources and Methodology, “ Journal of Jewish Studies 47 (1996), 1–32.

    b.  “The Status of the Patriarchate in the Third and Fourth Centuries: Sources and Methodology," in: Kehal Yisrael: Jewish Self-Rule Through the Ages, I, ed. I. Gafni (Jerusalem: Shazar Center, 2001), 103-37 ( Hebrew).

85a.   “The Nature and Origin of the Palestinian Synagogue Reconsidered,” Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996), 425–448.

    b.  “The Nature and Origin of the Palestinian Synagogue Reconsidered,” in: Tehillah le-Moshe: Biblical and Judaic Studies in Honor of Moshe Greenberg, ed. M. Cogan, B. L. Eichler, J. H. Tigay (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1997), 143*–162*. Hebrew.

86.    “Archaeology and the Religious Ethos of Pre-70 Palestine,” in: Hillel and Jesus: Comparative Studies of Two Major Religious Leaders, ed. J. Charlesworth (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1997), 110–20.

87.   “Beth She’arim,” in: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, I, ed. E. M. Meyers, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 309–311.

88.   “The Revolutionary Effects of Archeology on the Study of Jewish History Roman-Byzantine Palestine: The Case of the Ancient Synagogue,” in: The Archaeology of Israel: Constructing the Past, Interpreting the Present, ed. N. A. Silberman and D. Small (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic, 1997), 166–189.

89.   “Hasmonean Jerusalem: A Jewish City in a Hellenistic Orbit,” Judaism 46/2 (Spring 1997), 140–146.

90a. “The Menorah in the Synagogue,” in: By the Light of the Menorah: The Evolution of a Symbol, ed. Y. Israeli (Jerusalem: Israel Museum, 1998), 99–101. Hebrew.

    b. “The Menorah in the Ancient Synagogue,” in: In the Light of the Menorah: Story of a Symbol, ed. Y. Israeli (Jerusalem: Israel Museum, 1999), 109–112.

91.   “Second Temple Jerusalem: A Jewish City in the Greco-Roman Orbit,” in: Jerusalem: Its Sanctity and Centrality to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, ed. L. I. Levine (New York: Continuum, 1998), 53–68.

92.   “Synagogue Leadership: The Case of the Archisynagogue,” in: Jews in a Greco-Roman World, ed. M. Goodman (Oxford: Clarendon, 1998), 195–213

93.   “Synagogue,” in: Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, ed. G. Bowersock, P. Brown and O. Grabar (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1999), 708–710.

94.   “Synagogues in the Judaean Desert,” in: Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, II, ed. L. H. Schiffman and J. C. VanderKam (New York: Oxford University, 2000), 905–908.

95.   “Bilderkult IV.Judentum,” in: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart4, I, ed. J. Persch (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr–Paul Siebeck, 1998).

96.   “The Age of Hellenism: Alexander the Great and the Rise and Fall of the Hasmonean Kingdom,” in: Ancient Israel: A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple (revised and expanded), ed. H. Shanks (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999), 231–264.

97.   “The Development of Synagogue Liturgy in Late Antiquity,” in: Galilee Through the Centuries: Confluence of Cultures, ed. E. M. Meyers (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1999), 123–144.

98.   “The Patriarch and the Ancient Synagogue,” in: Jews, Christians, and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue, ed. S. Fine (London: Routledge, 1999), 87–100.

99.   “The Hellenistic-Roman Diaspora ce 70- ce 235: the Archaeological Evidence,” in: The Cambridge History of Judaism, III, ed. W. Horbury et al. (Cambridge , Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 991–1024.

100a.   “The History and Significance of the Menorah in Antiquity,” in: From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity, ed. L. I. Levine and Z. Weiss (Ann Arbor: JRA Supplementary Series, 2000), 131–153.

      b.   “The History and Significance of the Menorah in Antiquity,” Cathedra 98 (2001), 7–32. Hebrew.

101.   “Archaeology and the Bible,” in: Etz Hayim: A Torah Commentary, eds. D. Lieber et al. (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2001), 1339–1344.

102.   “Synagoge,” TRE–Theologische Realenzyklopaedie, XXXII, 4/5, ed. G. Mueller et al. (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2001), 499–508.

103.   “Between Rome and Byzantium in Jewish History: Documentation, Reality, and the Issue of Periodization,” in: Continuity and Renewal: Jews and Judaism in Byzantine-Christian Palestine, ed. L. I. Levine (Jerusalem: Dinur Center [Hebrew University], Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, and Jewish Theological Seminary, 2004), 7–48 Hebrew.

104.  “Les fonctions de la synagogue ancienne,” in: Aux origines du christianisme, ed. P. Géoltrain (Paris: Gallimard, 2000), 48–54.

105.   “The First-Century Synagogue: New Perspectives” Svensk Teologisk Kvartalskrift 77 (2001), 22–30.

106a.   “The First-Century Synagogue: Critical Reassessments and Assessments of the Critical,” in: The Archaeology of Difference: Gender, Ethnicity, Class and the ‘Other’ in Antiquity. Studies in Honor of Eric M. Meyers, ed. D. Edwards and C. T. McCollough (London: Routledge, 2004), 70–102.

      b.   “The First-Century Synagogue: Critical Reassessments and Assessments of the Critical,” in: Studies in the History of Eretz Israel: Presented to Yehuda Ben Porat, ed. Y. Ben-Arieh and E. Reiner (Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 2003), 168–194. Hebrew.

107.   “Contextualizing Jewish Art: The Synagogues of Hammat Tiberias and Sepphoris,” in: Jewish Culture and Society in the Christian Roman Empire, ed. R. Kalmin and S. Schwartz (Leuven: Peeters, 2003), 91–131.

108.  “Jewish Archaeology in Late Antiquity: Art Architecture, and Inscriptions,” in: The Cambridge History of Judaism, IV, ed. S. Katz (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

109.  “Art, Architecture, and Archaeology,” in: The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies, ed. M. Goodman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 824–851.

110.  “The First Century C.E. Synagogue in Historical Perspective,” in: The Ancient Synagogue: From the Beginning to about 200 C.E., ed. B. Olsson (Lund: Lund University Press, 2003), 1–25.

111.  “Dura Europos,” in: A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. E. Kessler and N. Wenborn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press).

112.  “Jewish Archaeology,” in: A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. E. Kessler and N. Wenborn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press).

113.   “Sardis,” in: A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. E. Kessler and N. Wenborn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press).

114.   “Synagogue,” in: A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, ed. E. Kessler and N. Wenborn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in press).

115.   “Patriarch, Patriarchate,” Encyclopedia of Religion, 2nd edition (in press).

116a. “Figurative Art in Jewish Society,” Ars Judaica (forthcoming), 30pp.

      b. “Figurative Art in Jewish Society” (Shazar Center, forthcoming), 25pp. Hebrew.

117. “Periodization in Late Antiquity: Defining a New Era in the Study of Jewish History,” Ismar Schorsch Festschrift, ed. J. Wertheimer (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, forthcoming), 25pp.

V.    Book Reviews

118. “The Causes of 66–70 C.E. – Review of The Roman-Jewish War (66–70 A.D.): Its Origins and Consequences, by M. Aberbach,” Judaism 20 (1971), 244–248.

119  “The Hellenistic Age: The World History of the Jewish People, ed. A. Schalit,” Jewish Social Studies 35 (1973), 161–163.

120. “Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, by E. Goodenough,” Qadmoniot 18 (1973), 66–67. Hebrew.

121. “Sefer Tiberias, by O. Avissar,” Qadmoniot 25–26 (1974), 62. Hebrew.

122.    “Understanding the Sacred Text: Essays in Honor of Morton S. Enslin in the Hebrew Bible and Christian Beginnings, ed. J. Reumann,” Israel Exploration Journal 25 (1975), 181–183.

123. “Césarée de Palestine: Etude historique et archéologique, by J. Ringel,” Israel Exploration Journal 26 (1976), 215–216.

124. “The Joint Expedition to Caesarea Maritima, I: Studies in the History of Caesarea Maritima, BASOR Supplemental Studies no. 19, ed. C. T. Fritsch,” Israel Exploration Journal 27 (1977), 262–264.

125. “Roman Palestine 200–400: The Land, by D. Sperber,” Israel Exploration Journal 29 (1979), 128–131.

126. “The Tabernacle Menorah, by C. Meyers,” Israel Exploration Journal 30 (1980), 243–245.

127. “The Temple of Solomon, by J. Gutmann,” Israel Exploration Journal 31 (1981), 247–249.

128. “The Excavations at Dura Europos, by C. H. Kraeling,” Israel Exploration Journal 34 (1984), 61–62.

129.    “Excavation at Hammath Tiberias, by M. Dothan,” Israel Exploration Journal 34 (1984), 284–288.

130. “State and Society in Roman Galilee, A.D. 132–212, by M. Goodman,” Israel Exploration Journal 36 (1986), 115–117.

131. “Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Land of Israel, by R. Hachlili,” Israel Exploration Journal 41 (1991), 212–215.

132.   “Galilee in the Mishnaic Period, by A. Oppenheimer,” Zion 57 (1992), 213–216. Hebrew.

133.   “Jewish Civilization in the Hellenistic-Roman Period, ed. S. Talmon,” Scripta Classica Israelica 13 (1994), 205–207.

134.   “Seeing and Hearing God with the Psalms – The Prophetic Liturgy of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, by R. J. Tournay,” Jewish Quarterly Review 86 (1995), 233–236.

135.  “Jerusalem Under Siege, by J. Price,” Jewish History 9/1 (1995), 114–115.

136.  “Material Culture in Eretz-Israel during the Talmudic Period, by D. Sperber,” Bekhol Derakhekha Daehu _ Journal of Torah and Scholarship 1 (1995), 111–114. Hebrew.

137.  “Ancient Synagogues: Historical Analysis and Archaeological Discovery, by D. Urman and P. V. M. Flesher (ed.),” Ioudaios Review 5.012 (August, 1995).

138.   “Die Institution des jüdischen Patriarchen, by M. Jacobs,” Religious Studies Review (1997).

139.   “The Monarchic Principle: Studies in Jewish Self-Government in Antiquity, by D. Goodblatt,” Jewish Quarterly Review 88 (1998), 317–324.

140.   “Sacred Realm: The Emergence of the Synagogue in the Ancient World, ed. S. Fine,” Journal of Roman Studies 88 (1998), 188–189.

141.  “Sepphoris in Galilee: Crosscurrents of Culture, ed. R. M. Nagy, C. Meyers, E. M. Meyers, and Z. Weiss”; “Promise and Redemption: A Synagogue Mosaic from Sepphoris, ed. E. Netzer and Z. Weiss,” Biblical Archaeology Review 25/1 (1999), 66–68.

142.   “The Social Structure of the Rabbinic Movement in Roman Palestine, by C. Hezser,” Jewish Quarterly Review 90 (2000), 483–488.

143.   “The Holy Place: On the Sanctity of the Synagogue during the Greco-Roman Period, by S. Fine,” Hebrew Studies 41 (2000), 306–311.

144.   “Into the Temple Courts: The Place of the Synagogues in the Second Temple Period, by D. Binder,” The Journal of Religion 81 (2001), 171–172.

145.   “Lod and Its Sages in the Period of the Mishnah and the Talmud, by B.-Z. Rosenfeld,” Zion 66 (2001), 235–237. Hebrew.

146    “The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, by R. Kalmin,” Journal of Semitic Studies 46 (2001), 337–340.

147.  “Hellenism in the Land of Israel, ed. J. J. Collins and G. E. Sterling,” Journal of Biblical Literature 122 (2003), 562–566.

148.   “Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the Fourth Century, by G. Stemberger,” Journal of Religious History 28/1 (2004), 105–107.

149.   “The Jews of Syria as Reflected in the Greek Inscriptions, by L. Roth-Gerson,” Zion 69 (2004). 361–363. Hebrew.

150.   “Jewish Literacy in Roman Palestine, by C. Hezser,” Israel Exploration Journal (forthcoming).

Articles on Contemporary Judaism

151.   The Melton Journal (Spring–Summer 1983), 5–6.

152. “Masorti Judaism in Israel: Challenge, Vision and Program,” in: The Seminary at 100: Reflections on the Jewish Theological Seminary and the Conservative Movement, ed. N. B. Cardin and D. W. Silverman (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1987), 381–389.

153.  “Masorti Judaism in Israel: Challenge, Vision and Program,” in: Towards the Twenty-First Century: Judaism and the Jewish People in Israel and America, ed. R. Kronish (Hoboken: KTAV, 1988), 79–92.

154.  “Religious Pluralism in Israel: A Jewish State or a State for Jews?” Proceedings of the Rabbinical Assembly 50 (1988), 49–69.

155.   “TALI Education: Its History and Principles,” Shedemot 112 (1990), 26–33. Hebrew.

156.  “Conservative Judaism and Zionism: Toward the Twenty-first Century,” Deepening the Commitment: Zionism and the Conservative/Masorti Movement, ed. J. Ruskay and D. Szonyi (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1990), 7–14.

157.  “Jewish Education as a Means of Dialogue between the Religious and Secularist,” Yad L’Ori (Jerusalem, 1993), 37–39. Hebrew.

158.  “The TALI Schools,” Origins: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions, ed. W. Ackerman (Jerusalem: Magnes, 1995), 259–277.

159.  “Identification,” in: The Tribes of Israel Together: A Dialogue with the President of the State of Israel, ed. S. Eilati (Jerusalem: President’s House, 1996).

160.  “Therefore Man was Created Alone (Mishnah, Sanhedrin 4:6),” in: Human Dignity, ed. A. Satrikovsky (Jerusalem: Ministry of Education, 1998), 25–27 (Hebrew).

161. “Professor Israel Levine,” in: Learning in Jerusalem: Dialogues with Distinguished Teachers of Judaism, ed. S. Freedman (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998), 229–247.